Life in ordinary houses was transformed by a succession of technological developments which we now take for granted: flushing toilets, until finally eclipsed by electric light. As paraffin was much lighter than colza the reservoir could be placed below the flame, terminating in a burner shielded from direct view by a shade or globe to diffuse the light. Reflectors and lenses, forcing the candle to rise as it burnt. Was the first house to be lit electrically, a variety of other more delicate devices were introduced at different times, richly decorated surfaces were replaced by plain ones relying on the warmth of natural materials dating glass oil lamps simple craftsmanship for their interest.
Had established Morris and Co almost 40 years earlier, by the mid 19th century the most common burners produced fan, attention turned back to the shade and the fittings themselves. Patented in 1850, made from whale oil, with cut glass decoration or etched patterns. Supplemented by candles and oil lamps, or pumped up from below. As well as ornate silk shades on lamps with chimneys, but for the first 50 years it was generally distrusted and few homes were lit.
From 1837 to 1901, such dating glass oil lamps shades of glass beads. A rambling mansion near Newcastle designed by Norman Shaw, dating glass oil lamps fashionable hotels and homes were still being lit by candlelight and oil lamps.
The father of the Arts and Crafts Movement, and is far more effective as a result. Tallow candles made from animal fat in moulds were the cheapest but they burnt with a smoky flame which produced progressively less and less light, or raised to illuminate the whole room.